neurología Marbella
neurología Marbella

Diagnosis

deterioro cognitivo

The more accurate the diagnosis, the better the choice of treatment.

 

The more we know about a disease, the better we can treat it and the more effectively we can help the patient.

 

At HC Marbella International Hospital we provide:

 

  • Advanced Neurophysiological testing
  • PET
  • 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • CT
  • Biomarkers

 
 

resonancia craneal

Neuroimaging tests

In neurology there are two reasons to order neuroimaging tests:

 

  1. In some diseases they are mandatory and essential to make a diagnosis, such as multiple sclerosis which requires an MRI to identify any brain lesions.
  2. To rule out other conditions

 

Types of neuroimaging tests:

 

  • Structural neuroimaging tests: these examine the brain and other parts of the nervous system, providing a static image, the location of a lesion or the effects of the disease. MRI or CT fall into this category.
  • Functional neuroimaging tests: these examine the functioning of the nervous system, providing a dynamic view of it. An example of this type of test would be PET.

 
 

potenciales evocados

Advanced neurophysiology tests

Advanced neurophysiology tests allow the study and real-time analysis of the functionality of the central and peripheral nervous system to provide essential information relevant to the diagnosis and evolution of several neurological diseases.

 

The Neurophysiology studies  available at the HC International Hospital in Marbella are:
 

  • Electroencephalogram
  • Electromyography
  • Evoked Potentials
  • Polysomnography

 
 

 
 

PET is a fundamental diagnostic technique in neurological disease. Anatomical/metabolic information can be obtained during a single procedure, in real time, increasing diagnostic accuracy. The technique combines:

 

  • PET (positron emission tomography) which provides metabolic information, in other words it assesses the function of tissue and organs.
  • CT (computerised axial tomography) which involves imaging to accurately locate the anatomical region.
  • The fusion of both images provides essential information on the location, extension and behaviour of the disease.

 

In neurology it is used for:
 

  • Diagnosis of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.
  • Differential and early dementia diagnosis.
  • Location of epileptogenic foci in refractory epilepsy prior to surgery.
  • Investigation and assessment of different psychiatric conditions.
  • Diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system tumours.

 
 

Amyloid PET

This is used to detect the presence of amyloid protein that accumulates in the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. It enables early detection of the disease, since the onset of amyloid accumulation begins up to 20 years before the onset of symptoms.

 

Using a specific tracer, it identifies accumulation of the Tau protein. In contrast to amyloid, which accumulates widely throughout the brain, the Tau protein is concentrated precisely where brain atrophy is most severe.

 

FDG PET

It shows increases or decreases in brain metabolism in numerous neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. It facilitates early and differential diagnosis of dementias.

This provides high diagnostic accuracy in conditions affecting the central nervous system (brain, stem and neuro-axis).

 

Exceptional anatomical detail, especially in Neurology and Neurosurgery.

 

  • Gold standard for study of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Assessment of the central nervous system and highly detailed visualisation of cerebral structures.
  • Observation of real-time function of the brain. Detection of areas of neuronal activation as it occurs.
  • High degree of characterisation due to techniques such as spectroscopy, tractography and functional imaging.
  • It enables us to make a diagnosis that is not possible with other types of imaging.

Indicated in:

  • Patients who have had head/brain trauma
  • Patients with syncope due to cerebral ischaemia or haemorrhage
  • Patients with dementia
  • >Patients with headaches or abnormal neurological examination, to exclude other pathology
  • Patients with suspicious symptoms, to exclude brain tumours 
  • Detection and control of hydrocephalus
  • Three-dimensional pre-surgical study of skull abnormalities

 

Estudio tridimensional prequirúrgico de alteraciones del cráneo

These allow us to extract information from samples (blood, cerebrospinal fluid…) which make it possible to detect a disease at an early stage or to know how far along in the disease the patient is.

 

Specific biomarkers exist for:

  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Alzheimer’s
  • Parkinson’s
  • MND
  • Others

This consists of recording the bioelectrical activity of the brain whilst awake or asleep and during distinct functions of brain activity (photostimulation, hyperventilation).

 

It is used to assess the level of consciousness, neurodegenerative disease and the presence of epileptic phenomena.

This records electrical activity of the peripheral nervous system. It involves sub-tests: an electroneurogram by which nerve conduction velocity is measured, and electromyography which analyses the neurophysiological activity of the muscle.

 

It is used to rule out or confirm diseases such as Motor Neurone Disease, Polyneuropathy, Myasthenia gravis, Myopathies, Radiculopathies, etc.

This examination evaluates the function of the visual, auditory and somatosensory systems and their pathways, by means of response to a known and standardized stimulus.

 

Its results can rule out or confirm diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, optical and auditory neuropathies, spinal cord injuries, etc.

This is the study of sleep and involves the comprehensive analysis of multiple simultaneous functions: Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Respiratory Function by measuring oxygen saturation and electrocardiography.

 

It is employed in the study of diseases that can affect sleep: sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, narcolepsy, insomnia, restless leg syndrome, etc.

Lumbar puncture consists of the removal of a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid. To enable this, the patient is placed in the left lateral position whilst lying down, with the knees bent up as close to the body as possible.

 

The fluid is tested for evidence of infection, cerebral haemorrhage, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disease or other neurological conditions.

 

Neurologists

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