Prostate cancer diagnosis

diagnostico de cáncer de próstata

A diagnosis is essential to plan appropriate treatment for each individual patient.
At HC Marbella, our advanced technology in the hands of our specialist team ensures an accurate diagnosis and delivers the best treatment option.


PSA or prostate specific antigen is a protein that is produced exclusively in the prostate. It is known as the tumour marker for prostate cancer, although it is not only raised as a result of tumour disease. Its main limitation is that benign diseases such as infection or benign prostatic hyperplasia also cause it to be raised, whilst a low blood concentration does not always indicate that there is no cancer.
PSA determination from a blood sample can be used in several ways:

  • In men who do not know if they have prostate cancer, such as for screening or diagnostic testing.
  • In men who already have prostate cancer, as a specific marker or to monitor progress..


Types of PSA

PSA may exist in the blood in a free form or bound to other blood substances.

  • When free form, it is known as free PSA
  • When bound to other substances, it is known as bound PSA.

Total PSA is the sum of both forms of PSA and is what is usually measured on blood tests.

PSA levels

When used as a screening or diagnostic test, if the result is abnormal, additional tests should be performed. The higher the value obtained the higher the chance of having cancer.
If the PSA content in the blood is raised, the greater the chance of prostate cancer.

PSA 0-2 ng/mL | Cancer Percentage 1%

PSA 2-4 ng/mL | Cancer Percentage 15%

PSA 4-10 ng/mL | Cancer Percentage 25%

PSA >10 ng/mL | Cancer Percentage >50%

The value most commonly used as the upper limit of normal is 4 ng/mL (nanograms per millilitre). However, it is normal for older men to have higher concentrations as the prostate gland increases in size with age and also produces more PSA. The normal value of 4 ng/mL is perhaps too high for young men
The probability increases dramatically above 10 ng/mL, so it is advisable to monitor progress.
A small percentage of prostate cancers do not produce detectable increases in blood PSA, even in advanced disease. It is therefore important not to rely solely on this laboratory test.
In addition to the PSA test, a digital rectal examination of the prostate is performed by a urologist. A positive rectal examination is common in advanced stage tumours.



This is the oldest and simplest screening test. It involves insertion of the index finger into the rectum to feel the prostate and detect any enlargement or abnormality that can be found on palpation


diagnostico de cáncer de próstata

This gives us information about the size of the prostate, its shape, its type of growth, and the presence of inflammation (prostatitis) or other benign abnormalities.
Multiparametric MRI:

  • Enables us to differentiate abnormal tissue from healthy tissue.
  • Enables us to evaluate tumour extension.
  • Serves as a guide when performing a biopsy (if needed), targeting suspicious areas for the sample to be taken.
  • Prevents a high number of unnecessary prostate biopsies when no suspicious areas are detected.
  • Enables the radiologist to deliver a PI-RADS report, an international assessment that indicates the likelihood of a patient suffering from prostate cancer. Depending on the probability, a biopsy may be recommended.


At HC Marbella our 3 Tesla MRI delivers greater diagnostic capacity for differentiation between prostate abnormalities.


Biopsia fusion HC Marbella

It is the most accurate, safe and advanced diagnostic technique for the detection of prostate cancer.

The technique involves overlaying two images:

  • Transrectal ultrasound for real-time visualization of the prostate and instrumentation.
  • A previously performed multiparametric MRI showing the precise location of the tumour.

The use of both images enables an accurate sample to be obtained from the tumour site and from areas of concern.

Advantages over traditional biopsy

  • Greater diagnostic accuracy, the specialist controls the area of concern to be biopsied at all times.
  • Reduced risk, fewer punctures and complications such as bleeding or infection.
  • Prevention of unnecessary repeat biopsies.

HC Marbella’s BK 3000 fusion ultrasound system combined with its 3 Tesla MRI offer greater diagnostic capability.


Doctor Antuña

HC Prostate Unit

Early diagnosis programme.
Multidisciplinary team.
The best possible treatment options, personalized treatments.
Latest diagnostic radiology technology and treatment.
Excellent personal care.


Dr. Arrazola, Tomás
Especialista en Farmacia Hospitalaria
Especializado en terapia contra el cáncer, certificado por la Sociedad Americana de Farmacéuticos de Hospital

Tel.: +34 952 908 628

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